Welding is a fabrication technique in which two or more parts are fused together with heat, pressure, or both to form a join that will hold when they cool. The weld quality, droplet transfer, current transfer, and, welding speed are all affected by the gas used. 

The main goal when using gases to weld is to keep the weld pool as safe as possible. Other considerations include keeping welds clean on the opposite side of the seam, and shielding the arc from impurities such as air, dust, and other gases [1]. 

Gases used for Welding and Cutting Metals

There are two types of gases: inert and reactive. When in contact with other substances or temperatures, inert gases do not alter or generate change. Reactive gases, on the other hand, have the opposite effect. They react in a variety of ways, causing other substances and/or themselves to change state. 

The following gases are utilised in welding and cutting processes [2].

  • Acetylene, propane, and butane are known as fuel gases

  • Oxygen, used with fuel gases and in small amounts in some shielding gas mixtures

  •  Carbon dioxide, argon, and helium are known as shielding gases.


Argon is in charge of all the shielding agents on the planet. It has good penetrating power and can keep a consistent arc to make welding easier. It can be used to weld sheet metal using gas tungsten arc welding, because it provides a higher level of weld puddle control.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Pure CO2 allows for an extremely deep weld penetration, which is advantageous when welding thicker materials. When combined with other gases, however, it generates a less stable arc and more splatter.

Compressed Air

Compressed air is utilised in welding in a variety of ways. Compressed air is commonly used to clear dust, swarf, and other dry materials from the workshop. Air nozzles attached to compressors with hoses spray air out to blow away dirt [3].


Oxygen is currently considered a raw ingredient in the welding industry. The production of modern steel necessitates a large amount of oxygen. In blast furnaces, Oxygen is required for flame enrichment in the pre-treatment of iron to eliminate faults in blooms, slabs, and billets.


Oxyacetylene welding, often known as gas welding, is a welding procedure that uses the combustion of Oxygen and Acetylene. When combined in the proper proportions in a hand-held torch or blowpipe, a relatively hot flame with a temperature of around 3,200 degrees is created. The high flame temperature makes acetylene a suitable choice for gas welding steels. Acetylene also produces a reducing zone, which is used to easily clean metal surfaces.


Helium is commonly employed as a welder shielding gas due of its high thermal conductivity, ability to deliver a wider and shallower application penetration pattern during the welding process, and ability to increase wetting of the weld bead. The welding sector, on the other hand, is facing some difficulties due to the impending helium scarcity.


Nitrogen increases weld penetration and arc stability. Gas blends containing nitrogen can increase the mechanical properties of alloys containing nitrogen and prevent pitting corrosion and nitrogen loss from the metal. 

Mixed Gases

There are many different gases to choose from, each of which excels in different areas and falls short in others. Mixed gases provide a useful balance for combining the strengths of several gases to create a harmonised product with outstanding outcomes.  

  • Argon and CO2
  • Argon, CO2 and Oxygen
  • Helium and Argon
  • Argon, Helium and CO2
  • Argon and Oxygen
  • Argon and Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen and Hydrogen.


One of the most common mixtures of gases used for welding is Argon, CO2, and Oxygen. This gas mixture is used mostly by MIG welders who work with mild steel. Depending on the thickness of the metal, the concentration of CO2 will differ. The thicker the metal, the more CO2 in the gas mixture is required.

At Pro Gases UK, our most popular gases used for welding is pure Argon, and Argon mixes, with percentages of CO2 between 5%, 15%, and 20%.

As technology evolves and we continue to innovate, semiconductor manufacturers are under increasing pressure to create and produce smaller, faster performing components. The use of quality gases is an essential part of this process.


Nitrogen and Oxygen are two of the commonly used gases in semiconductor manufacturing. Nitrogen, because of its inert nature, as well as being cheap and readily available. Oxygen, because of its purity and properties as an oxidizing agent. 


Here we provide high-level insight into the qualities of Nitrogen and Oxygen, and how each gas is used in the semiconductor manufacturing process.




Nitrogen contains compounds such as ammonia and nitrous oxide which are used in the process of deposition to fabricate high-quality semiconductors. During deposition, substrate and gaseous reactants interact within a reaction chamber at high temperatures. This results in progressive layers of thin films of material – this process is continued until the wanted thickness is achieved.


Nitrogen is also used in the process of purging. Purging is used to keep surfaces free from other gaseous and liquid contaminants that could negatively impact the manufacturing process. In this process, Nitrogen is passed through all channels and piping to displace oxygen from contaminating production tools.




In the process of silicon layer deposition, Oxygen forms a vital part of the deposition reactions. It can be used with Argon or helium as co-substrates to further activate the process. This combination at elevated temperatures is the basis for the creation of basic semiconductor materials.


Oxygen in its highest purity can be used in the neutralization of waste gases by oxidant reactions. A stream of oxygen through abatement equipment is used to purge reactive by-products that might later impact the quality of semiconductor components.


For more detailed insights into the use of Oxygen and Nitrogen for industrial purposes, please contact us for more information.

For manufacturers of semiconductors, a reliable and quality source of gases is essential for their day-to-day performance, and the overall quality of their finished products.
At Pro Gases, we provide manufacturers with a regular supply of quality gas at a competitive price. 

Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Argon, Hydrogen, Helium and Acetylene.


The industrial gases that are relied upon in some of the most critical industries around the world, such as Healthcare, Agriculture, Food Production, Oil & Gas, Electronics and Steel Manufacturing.


Without gases, these critical industries would be unable to perform their day to day operations. Shortages of gas and gas quality issues can cause massive disruption which can be felt across society – for example, the recent CO2 shortage in the UK which impacted food packaging production, COVID-19 vaccine transportation, and livestock slaughtering. 


Here we share some of the industries that rely upon industrial gases, and how they use gases.


Healthcare Industry

Oxygen, CO2, Nitrogen and Nitrous Oxide are used in Healthcare as a critical part in supporting the treatment and care of patients.


Oxygen: The most widely used industrial gases in healthcare. Used to aid breathing in the event of respiratory difficulties, and as a main component of medical air. This air provides extremely sensitive respiratory systems with a pure, sterile source of air for respiratory therapy and humidification treatments.


CO2: Used extensively in surgeries like laparoscopy, arthroscopy, endoscopy, and cryotherapy. It can also be used to diagnose chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, COPD, and others.


Medical Liquid Nitrogen: Commonly used to remove some cancers and skin lesions. The pharmaceutical industry uses this gas in the manufacture of medications.


Nitrous Oxide: Used in numerous surgical procedures as both an aesthetic and pain reliever.


Electronics Manufacturing

Oxygen and Nitrogen are the core industrial gases used during the manufacturing process of electronics, that enables the $450 billion industry to produce televisions, computers, semiconductors, and integrated circuits.

Nitrogen: The most used gas in electronics, and particularly for semiconductor manufacturing. A key part of manufacturing electronics because it displaces oxygen in the soldering (joining metals together) process. If oxygen interacts with a solder, it can compromise its integrity. Nitrogen is placed over the circuit board eliminating the presence of oxygen and thus ensuring that a strong solder is made.


Oxygen: Used for the oxidation of silicon, a critical process in the manufacturing of semiconductors.


Steel Manufacturing

Oxygen, Acetylene and Argon are fundamental to core processes used in steel manufacturing, especially for industries such as automotive, construction and defence.

Oxygen: Playing a very important role in the steel making process, as it is a primary raw material for making steel. It is used in the basic oxygen process and the electric arc furnace.


Argon: Used in conjunction with oxygen in a common technology for refining stainless steel.


Acetylene: Used for welding and metal cutting as it can produce a flame temperature of 5,700° Fahrenheit.



CO2 is used to help boost plant growth and to control pests while supporting organise agriculture. 


CO2: Used in the greenhouse to allow crops to meet their photosynthesis potential. CO2 is also used to increase the soil’s organic matter content to aid plant growth, increase the total carbon content, and improve soil water retention capability.


Food Production

CO2 is primarily used in food packaging and as a method of stunning animals prior to slaughter.


CO2: Used by being injected into the packaging of perishables foods such as meat and salads to inhibit the growth of bacteria. This helps prolong the shelf life of products. CO2 is also used to create dry ice, which is used to keep food fresh for storage and transport.


Industrial gases are used in industries that impact our everyday life. Without a constant and reliable source of quality gases, shortages would occur in industries that we rely upon, that provide us with medical care, food and life-saving technologies.